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# Font files

Fonts are used to render label components and text nodes in GUI scenes. Defold supports font files in TrueType, OpenType or BMFont format, which can be added to your project and automatically converted into a graphical format that Defold can render. Two font rendering techniques are available, bitmap and distance field, each with its own specific benefits and drawbacks.

## Creating a font

To create a font for use in Defold, simply create a new Font file by selecting File ▸ New ▸ Font File (or right click in the Project Explorer and create the file).

You also need to import a font into your Defold project. Simply drag a TrueType or OpenType (or BMFont, see below) file into the Project Explorer and drop it in a good spot.

Shadow rendering of fonts is currently disabled by default because of performance reasons. It is fairly easy to write a custom shader that renders shadows (at some cost) if you need them. In the future, Defold will be able to select an appropriate shader based on used features.

font

In the font editor, set this property to the imported TTF, OTF or .fnt file (you can click the button to browse for the file). The editor will immediately create the font data and show a preview in the font editor.

material

The material to use when rendering this font. Make sure to change this if you are creating a distance field font or a BMFont (see below for more on these).

size

The target size of the glyphs in pixels.

antialias

If the font should be antialiased when baked onto the target bitmap. Set to 0 if you want pixel perfect font rendering.

alpha

The value of the alpha channel. 0.0–1.0 where 0.0 means transparent and 1.0 opaque.

outline_alpha

The value of the alpha channel for the generated outline. 0.0–1.0.

outline_width

The width of the generated outline in pixels. Set to 0 for no outline.

The value of the alpha channel for the generated shadow. 0.0–1.0.

The horizontal offset of the generated shadow.

The vertical offset of the generated shadow.

extra_characters

By default the font will include the ASCII printable characters (character codes 32-126). To manually include additional characters, list them in this property field.

output_format

This property controls the type of font that is generated.

• TYPE_BITMAP. For OTF and TTF files, the imported font is converted into a font sheet texture where the bitmap data is used to render text nodes. The color channels are used to encode different aspects of the font, such as the face shape, outline and drop shadow. The preview shows the raw font texture with the font face in the red channel, the outline in the green channel and shadow in the blue channel. The pixel density of the font is fixed so it will look good in its generated size or scaled down. Bitmap fonts are very fast to render but size limited—scaling up a bitmap font quickly creates artifacts.
• TYPE_DISTANCE_FIELD The imported font is converted into a font sheet texture where the pixel data represents not screen pixels but distances to the font edge. See below for details.
all_chars

If you set this property to true all glyphs available in the source file will be included in the output.

cache_width

Set this to constrain the width of the glyph cache bitmap. When the engine renders text, it looks on the cache bitmap for a glyph. If it does not exist there, it will be added to the cache before rendering. If the cache bitmap is too small to contain all the glyphs the engine is asked to render, an error (ERROR:RENDER: Out of available cache cells! Consider increasing cache_width or cache_height for the font.) is signalled. If this value is 0 then the cache size is set automatically.

cache_height

Set this to constrain the height of the glyph cache bitmap. If this value is 0 then the cache size is set automatically.

The ASCII printable characters are: space ! " # \$ % & ’ ( ) * + , - . / 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 : ; < = > ? @ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z [ \ ] ^ _  a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z { | } ~

## Bitmap BMFonts

In addition to generated bitmaps Defold supports prebaked bitmap “BMFont” format fonts. These fonts consists of a PNG font sheet with all the glyphs. In addition, a .fnt file contains information on where on the sheet each glyph can be found as well as size and kerning information.

Defold currently only support plain text .fnt files and not the XML version of the format that is used by Phaser and other tools.

These types of fonts provide no performance improvement from bitmap fonts generated from TrueType or OpenType font files, but can include arbitrary graphics, coloring and shadows right in the image.

Add the generated .fnt and .png files to your Defold project. These files should reside in the same folder. Create a new font file and set the font property to the .fnt file. Make sure that output_format is set to TYPE_BITMAP. Defold will not generate a bitmap but use the one provided in the PNG.

To create a BMFont, you need to use a tool that can generate the appropriate files. Several options exist:

For the font to render correctly, don’t forget to set the material property to builtins/fonts/font-fnt.material when you create the font.

## Distance field fonts

To create a distance field font, simply select TYPE_DISTANCE_FIELD` as output_format. This creates a distance field map for the font. When the engine renders the font, a special shader is required to interpret the distance data and use that to create a sharp font edge. Distance field fonts are more resource intensive than bitmap fonts, but allow for much greater sizing flexibility.

Make sure to change the material property of the font to builtins/fonts/font-df.material (or any other material that can handle the distance field data) when you create the font—or the font will not use the correct shader when it is rendered to screen.

## Artifacts and best practices

Generally, bitmap fonts are best when the font is rendered with no scaling. They are faster to render to screen than distance field fonts.

Distance field fonts respond very good to upscaling. Bitmap fonts, on the other hand, being just pixelated images will increase in size so the pixels will grow as the font is scaled, resulting in blocky artifacts. The following is a scaled sample at font size 48 pixels. The text has been scaled up roughly 8 times.

When scaling down, the situation is the opposite. The pixel texture can be scaled down and be antialiased by the rendering hardware. The following is a zoom of the same sample font at size 48 pixels. The text has been scaled down to half the size:

Distance field fonts will produce other types of artifacts in certain situations. If the font glyphs contain very thin lines and you render the font at a small size (the size property), the resulting distance field texture is not dense enough to hold the data required to express critical points in the glyphs. Text may then render like this:

To remedy the problem, create the font at a larger size.

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